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Conference Presentations 2004

  • IASSIST 2004-Data Futures: Building on 30 Years of Advocacy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Host Institution: Data and Program Library Service, University of Wisconsin-Madison

D2: Privacy, Security, and Information Today (Thu, 2004-05-27)
Chair:Margo Anderson

  • Internet Surveillance: Recent U.S. Developments
    Juri Stratford (University of California, Davis)


    The U.S. Federal government has recently implemented both technologies and policies related to Internet surveillance. This paper looks at recent U.S. developments, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Carnivore software, new authorities relating to electronic evidence under the Patriot Act, and the Pentagon's Total Information Awareness Program.

  • An Empirical Examination of the Concern for Information Privacy Construct in the New Zealand Context
    Ellen Rose (Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University)


    Moore stated "since societies differ, the desire or need for privacy will vary historically, from one society to another and among different groups in the same society." This study uses confirmatory factor analysis on a random sample of 459 New Zealanders to further examine the structure of the recently developed Concern for Information Privacy (CFIP) construct in a post September 11 environment in a similar western society that has a different regulatory model with respect to protecting the privacy of personal information. Similar findings on CFIP's dimensions and its treatment as a second-order factor strengthen the findings of previous empirical tests of the CFIP instrument developed by Smith, et al. since the sample demographics and the time of data collection differ. In addition, theoretical relationships between CFIP, consumer knowledge of current policy, regulatory preferences, negative experiences with private and government organizations, and different situations under which information might be revealed were examined with the results showing some interesting differences. The New Zealand regulatory model is a middle ground between the strict directives of the European Union and the self-regulatory environment of the United States, making it an interesting context to study in the interest of contributing to balancing the needs of society, individuals and international trade with respect to privacy of personal information.

  • Data Archives in the Post 9/11 World
    Thomas E. Brown (National Archives and Records Administration)


    A key weapon in the war on terrorism is information. The information in data archives around the world is no exception. This presentation will explore how the U.S. National Archives is changing its access policies to the databases in its holdings that have become "records of concern." This includes evolving guidelines to identify those databases that need to be restricted. After concluding that certain databases may be records of concern, the Archives is limiting access to records previously available. But in the effort to make some information available, it is also trying to use techniques previously developed for protecting confidentiality of individuals to grant limited access to these databases of concern.

D3: Ensuring Data Quality: Aim High (Thu, 2004-05-27)
Chair:Luuk Schreven

  • Elementary Data Quality Elements
    Karsten Boye Rasmussen (University of Southern Denmark)


    Data quality is obviously a good thing and an attractive goal to pursue. But what is data quality? The paper will give an overview of the literature on data quality and present the intuitive, the empirical and the ontological approaches that lead to a focus on dimensions or elements of data quality.

    The context of the paper is data for use in the data warehouse. The proposition is that data quality is not a static measure and that although data should not be changed by the users of the data, the users' use of the data can build information for a context or metadata. The proposition is that the improved metadata dynamically can improve the data quality even though data are "frozen."

  • Meaning and Illusion in US Economic Statistics: A Case for Education and Restricted Access to Federal Statistical Microdata on Organizations
    Martin David (University of Wisconsin - Madison)


    Economic indicators are cited and analyzed by persons who know little of their accuracy or meaning. Net change in employment, percent change in GDP and productivity, and the level of Federal budget surplus evoke comment and action inconsistent with uncertainty in these estimates and their imperfect links to well-being, growth, and health of the economy. I present paradoxes in the meaning of these indicators and demonstrate gaps in users' understanding of underlying measurements.

    Closing the gaps entails three efforts. 1) Data disseminators and archivists need to develop training modules and check lists to guide uninitiated users and stimulate questioning about epistemology. 2) Academics training professional economists and statisticians must increase training on measurement of economic activities. 3) Research access to statistical microdata archives on organizations must be substantially increased. That access entails increased documentation and reduced cost for scientific investigation of those microdata.

    I explain how these thoughts led to the creation of the program of studies on economic statistics that I created for the Joint Program in Survey Methodology (University of Maryland, University of Michigan, and WESTAT). Widespread understanding of the meaning of economic indicators will increase productivity and relevance of research on those indicators.

  • Missing Data Allocation in the IPUMS: Minnesota Allocation Techniques and Customizable Tools for Researchers
    Colin Davis (Minnesota Population Center)


    The IPUMS (Integrated Public Use Microdata Series) software takes public use samples of census or survey microdata and, along with harmonizing variable categories, corrects logical inconsistencies and missing values. The U.S. Census Bureau has released public use samples for 1940 to the present in which missing values have been allocated and logical inconsistencies have been corrected. In contrast, historical samples of the U.S. Census (1850 through 1920) created by the Minnesota Population Center, as well as many modern international samples, must undergo missing data allocation to correct logical inconsistencies and missing values. The Minnesota Population Center has developed a second generation of data conversion software to produce all IPUMS data, including missing data allocation.

    The original software allocated missing data in the U.S. samples 1850-1920. Our second generation software had to do the same, and also add as much extensibility as possible in order to accommodate future microdata projects. To this end, the new data conversion program interprets an "allocation table definition" that describes tables for a hot-deck donation and allocation procedure. This presentation will describe the technology and procedures used to allocate missing data at the MPC, including a demonstration of software that allows researchers to customize missing data allocation rules as desired.

E1: DDI in Practice (Thu, 2004-05-27)
Chair:Jostein Ryssevik

  • Developing the DDI and Its Applications in Taiwan
    Alfred Ko-wei Hu (Center for Survey Research, Academia Sinica)


    The Data Documentation Initiative is an important infrastructure, and step as well, toward building a web-oriented data archive. Yet the preparation of a DDI codebook and the development of DDI-related web applications produce new challenges to the data archive formerly based mainly on standalone PCs as the primary medium for data storage and daily operation. In this paper, the DDI experience at the Center of Survey Research at Academia Sinica in Taipei will be studied. The issues to be addressed in this paper include the following: 1) the problems in creating a DDI codebook, 2) the development of related tools used for processing the DDI codebook, 3) the relationship between DDI and relational database, and 4) the development of web applications in relation to DDI. While the Center of Survey Research at Academia Sinica in Taiwan is a young and small-sized data archive by international standards, it is hoped that its experience in the DDI project can shed light on the future development of the DDI and its add-on tools.

  • Cataloguing Individual Data Values within an On-line Visualisation System Using the DDI Aggregate Data Extension: The New Great Britain Historical GIS
    Humphrey Southall (Great Britain Historical GIS Project, University of Portsmouth)


    The Great Britain Historical GIS Project makes British historical statistics widely available, especially census data for a local history audience. Much data has been computerised or assembled from collaborators, but until recently was held as many separate tables structured like the paper originals; like most archives, it was a library of datasets, not of data. A new architecture has been developed in which all statistical data are held in one column of one table, with millions of rows. Other columns contextualise data values via links to three metadata sub-systems. Location in time and space are recorded via a systematic gazetteer, based on the Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer Content Standard and previously presented at IASSIST. The Source Documentation System links data values to the census reports they came from, enabling reassembly of the original tables. The Data Documentation System is based on the DDI Aggregate/Tabular Data Extension and plays a more interpretative role, enabling comparisons over time and defining new derived values.

  • A DTD for Qualitative Data: Extending the DDI to Mark-up the Content of Non-numeric Data
    Louise Corti (UK Data Archive, University of Essex)
    Libby Bishop (UK Data Archive, University of Essex)


    In this paper we present a set of recommended elements (tags) that might enable the DDI to be extended to the description of the structure and content of qualitative social science data. The DDI is appropriate for describing study, file and variable level information for qualitative datasets, but TEI-like headers are also required to enable XML-based data exploration.

    ESDS Qualidata has identified a growing need for a standard framework (for data and content-level metadata) for facilitating the sharing, presentation and exchange of digital qualitative data via the web. To this end we have already developed a basic prototype methodology using XML standards and technologies. Recent work has focused on specifying a general and formal application for encoding, searching and retrieving the content of a broad class of social science data resources. Work in progress has been to formulate a recommended set of guidelines for preparing and marking-up data to a common and minimum recommended XML-based standard, for data providers/publishers to publish to online data systems, such as ESDS Qualidata Online, and software companies who currently offer qualitative data analysis software to consider with data exchange in mind.

  • No Longer Lost in Translation
    Kenneth Miller (UK Data Archive, University of Essex)


    As part of the MADIERA project (Multilingual Access to Data Infrastructures of the European Research Area), the development of an eight language multi-lingual thesaurus has continued. This paper highlights the changes made within the NESSTAR publisher to make the tasks of assigning index terms from this thesaurus at study, variable group and variable level to DDI marked-up metadata both consistent and less resource intensive. The ability to easily add high quality data content to the new MADIERA system has been given greatest priority in this project, so that the eventual end-user features can be demonstrated to their best advantage. It is hoped that a prototype user interface, exploiting the power of the thesaurus, will be available in time for the IASSIST conference.

  • IASSIST Quarterly

    Publications Special issue: A pioneer data librarian
    Welcome to the special volume of the IASSIST Quarterly (IQ (37):1-4, 2013). This special issue started as exchange of ideas between Libbie Stephenson and Margaret Adams to collect


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